A record drop in foreign holdings of U.S. Treasury bills in December sent a reminder that the government might have to pay higher interest rates on its debt to continue to attract investors.
China reduced its stake and lost the position it’s held for more than a year as the largest foreign holder of Treasury debt.
Japan retook the top spot as it boosted its Treasury holdings.
The Treasury Department said foreign holdings of U.S. Treasury bills fell by a record $53 billion in December. That topped the previous record drop of $44.5 billion in April 2009.
Private analysts, though, were split over the significance of the decline.
Some doubted that the drop in foreign holdings of short-term Treasuries signified growing unease about holding U.S. debt. They noted that net purchases of longer-term Treasury debt rose in December by $70 billion.
But other economists saw the decline as a warning signal.
They fear that foreigners, especially the Chinese, have begun to worry about record-high U.S. budget deficits and are looking to diversify their holdings.
A sustained drop in foreign demand for dollar-denominated assets could lead to higher U.S. interest rates and falling stock prices.
Those trends could threaten the U.S. recovery. But economists said they see no such evidence yet.
The Treasury report showed that China reduced its holdings of Treasury securities by $34.2 billion in December.
Alan Meltzer, an economics professor at Carnegie Mellon University, said China’s shift should be a wake-up call for Washington.